one who is fond of forest or forest scenery; a haunter of the woods.
Etymology: from Latin nemoralis, from nemus, nemoris, “a wood or grove” + Greek philia, “love”.
Félix Vallotton, Nu couché sur un tapis rouge [détail], 1909
First watercolor. The moon..
“The probability of separate worlds meeting is very small. The lure of it is immense. We send starships. We fall in love.”
- Jeanette Winterson
“My sister’s boyfriend, Fox, on his last day of high school. The sun was setting, and he and his friends were all playing around. I caught him in a moment of reflection.” By Petra Collins
Anonymous asked: Humans r carnivores so we can eat meat
Sigh. I think the time has come to explain as thoroughly as possible.
DISCLAIMER: I am not here to tell anyone to stop eating meat. I am not here to shit on your lifestyle, and I am not here to ‘force my beliefs down your throat’. I am merely educating those who are interested. I am stating facts, based off of research that does not come from the internet (which could be written by anyone like you and I) but from real scientific research, doctors, and books (whom are, of course, not allowed to promote fake facts). What you do with this information is your own choice.
Our anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and psychology all indicate that we are in fact not carnivores. Carnivores eat raw meat, straight from the carcass, and not only the flesh, but eating the muscle meat as well as the organs. They make sure they lap up the warm, fresh blood as well as other bodily fluids without hesitation.
Most of us love animals. We do not salivate when we see a little pig - in fact, we wanna play with it! Most of us do not salivate at the idea of crushing the life out of that pig, or gnawing on its insides. We can not imagine slurping the hot blood while ripping out its intestines, getting it all over our faces, hands, and bodies. These behaviors are not moral to humanity, perhaps are even sickening.
Slaughterhouses have the scents of those of death and blood. People who have been in one find them unspeakably abhorrent - in fact, no one is allowed to visit anymore. Employees find slaughterhouse conditions impossible to be okay with, which shows up in slaughterhouses having the highest employee turnover rate of any industry. Slaughterhouses do not fit in with our concepts of kindness and compassion.
We buy our meat off the shelf, packed neatly, without veins or bones or a carcass. Majority of adults agree that if they had to kill the animal themselves in order to eat it, they wouldn’t do it. We disguise animal flesh by only eating small cuts of the muscle and some organ meats. However, even then we are told not to eat them raw, but instead cook them and camouflage them with condiments.
Now, lets see an incomplete list of the major biological differences between humans and carnivorous creatures.
Humans vs. Carnivores, shall we?
- Walking: We have two hands and two feet, and we walk erect. All of the carnivores have four feet and perform their locomotion using all fours.
- Tails: Carnivores have tails.
- Tongues: Only the truly carnivorous animals have rasping tongues. All other creatures have smooth tongues.
- Claws: Our lack of claws make ripping through skin or tough flesh extremely difficult. We possess much weaker, flat fingernails instead.
- Opposable thumbs: Our opposable thumbs make us extremely well equipped to collect a meal of fruit in a matter of a few seconds. Most people find the process effortless. All we have to do, is pick it. The claws of carnivores allow them to catch their prey in a matter of seconds as well. We could no more catch and rip the skin or tough flesh of a deer or bear barehanded than a lion could pick mangos or bananas.
- Births: Humans usually have children one or two at a time. Carnivores typically give birth to litters.
- Colon formation: Our convulated colons are quite different in design from the smooth colons of carnivorous animals.
- Intestinal length: Our intestinal tracts measure roughly 12 times the length of our torsos (about 30 feet).This allows for the slow absorption of sugars and other water-borne nutrients from fruit. In contrast, the digestive tract of a carnivore is only 3 times the length of its torso. This is necessary to avoid rotting or decomposition of flesh inside the animal. The carnivore depends upon highly acidic secretions to facilitate rapid digestion and absorption in its very short tube. Still, the putrefaction of proteins and the rancidity of fats is evident in their feces.
- Mammary glands: The multiple teats of abdomens on carnivores do not coincide with the pair of mammary glands on the chest of humans.
- Sleep: Humans roughly spend two thirds of every 24-hour cycle actively awake. Carnivores typically sleep and rest from 18 to 20 hours a day and sometimes more.
- Microbial tolerance: Most carnivores can digest microbes that would be deadly for humans, such as those that cause botulism.
- Perspiration: Humans sweat from pores on their entire body. Carnivores sweat from the tongues only.
- Vision: Our sense of vision responds to the full spectrum of color, making it possible to distinguish ripe from unripe fruit at a distance. Meat eaters do not typically see in full color.
- Meal size: Fruit is in scale to our food requirements. It fits our hands. A few pieces of fruit is enough to make a meal, leaving no waste. Carnivores typically eat the entire animal when they kill it.
- Drinking: Should we need to drink water or any liquid substance, we can suck it with our lips, but we cannot lap it up. Carnivores’ tongues protrude outward so they can lap water when they need to drink.
- Placenta: We have a discoid-style placenta, whereas the carnivores have zonary placentas.
- Vitamin C: Carnivores manufacture their own vitamin C. For us, vitamin C is an essential nutrient we must get from our fruit.
- Jaw movement: Our ability to grind our food is unique to plant eaters. Meat eaters have no lateral movement in their jaws.
- Dental formula: Mammalogists use a system called the “dental formula” to describe arrangement of teeth in each quadrant of the jaws in an animal’s mouth. This refers to the number of incisors, canines, and molars in each of the four quadrants. Starting from the center and moving outwards, our formula, and that of most anthropoids, is 2/1/5. The dental formula for carnivores is 3/1/5-to-8.
- Teeth: The molars of a carnivore are pointed and sharp. Ours are primarily flat, for mashing food. Our “canine” teeth bear no resemblance to true fangs. Nor do we have a mouth full of them, as a true carnivore does.
- Tolerance for fat: We do not handle more than small quantities of fat well. Meat eaters thrive on a high-fat diet.
- Saliva and urine pH: All of the plant-eating creatures (including healthy humans) maintain alkaline saliva and urine most of the time. The saliva and urine of the meat eating animals, however, is acidic.
- Diet pH: Carnivores thrive on a diet of acid-forming foods, whereas such a diet is deadly to humans, setting the stage for a wide variety of disease states. Our preferred foods are all alkaline forming.
- Stomach acid pH: The pH level of hydrochloric acid that humans produce in their stomachs generally ranges about 3 to 4 or higher but can go as low as to 2 (0 = most acidic, 7 = neutral, 14 = most alkaline). The stomach acid of cats and other meat eaters can be in the 1+ range and usually runs in the 2s. Because the pH scale is logarithmic, this means the stomach acid of a carnivore is at least 10 times stronger than that of a human and can be even 100, or even 1,000 times stronger.
- Uricase: True carnivores secrete an enzyme called uricase to metabolize the urid acid in their flesh. We secrete none and so must neutralize this strong acide with our alkaline minerals, primarily calcium. The resulting calcium urate crystals are one of the many pathogens of meat eating, in this case giving rise to or contributing to gout, arthritis, rheumatism, and bursitis.
- Digestive enzymes: Our digestive enzymes are geared to make for easy fruit digestion. We produce ptyalin - also known as salivary amylase - to initiate the digestion of fruit. Meat-eating animals do not produce any ptyalin and have completely different digestive enzyme ratios.
- Sugar metabolism: The glucose and fructose in fruits fuel our cells without straining our pancreas (unless we eat a high-fat diet). Meat eaters do not handle sugars well. They are prone to diabetes if they eat a diet that is predominated by fruit.
- Intestinal flora: Humans have different bacterial colonies (flora) living in their intestines than those found in carnivorous animals. The ones that are similar, such as lactobacillus and e. coli are found in different rations in the plant eaters’ intestines as compared to those of carnivores.
- Liver size: Carnivores have proportionately larger livers in comparison to their body size than humans.
- Cleanliness: We are the most particular of all creatures about the cleanliness of our food. Carnivores are the least picky, and will eat dirt, bugs, organic debris, and other items along with their just killed food.
- Natural appetite: Our mouths water at the sights and smells of the produce market. These are living foods, the source of our sustenance. But the smell of animal usually puts us off. Meat eaters’ mouths water at the sight of prey, and they react to the smell of animals as though they sense food, unlike humans.
When we weigh the evidence, we can see that too many considerations exist in physiology, anatomy, aesthetic disposition, and psychology for us to seriously entertain the notion that we were designed to eat flesh.
And yes, we used to hunt to survive, but we also used to hit each other over the head with clubs and smack rocks together to make a fire. We have alternatives now, and we do not need to cause harm in order to survive, unlike animals, who do need meat to survive. The choice is ours.
I highly recommend ANYONE to read ‘The 80/10/10 Diet’ by Dr. Douglas N. Graham, which has been adopted by several olympic stars. It is extremely educative as in what fruit does to the body and how it stands in comparison to meat, as well as going straight through myths.
photo: Mark Oblow
Audrey Hepburn photographed by Arthur Rothstein in a publicity photo for Gigi (1951).
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